For centuries, big parts of Central Kalimantan were ruled by Banjarmasin.
When the Banjarese elite converted to the islam in the early 17th
century, soon the principalties along the coast followed, and the
Dayak in the region also followed. Around 1830, the colonial rule
and the first protestant missionaries slowed down the islamization
among the Dayak.
The Dutch geologist and explorer Schwaner
mapped Central Kalimantan for the first time. Between 1841 and 1848
he travelled over the big cities (Barito, Kahayan, Kapuas and Katingan),
and mapped the villages on the riverbanks. The mountain range between
Central Kalimantan and West Kalimantan was later named after him.
Between 1880 and 1890, the Dutch dewatered the southeastern part
of Central Kalimantan by digging five canals between the Kaupas,
Barito and Kahayan.
After the proclamation of the Indonesian
independence in 1949, the area still was Banjarmasin under control
. Conflicts rose between the traditional Dayak and the islamic Banjarese
and at the end of the 1950 the Dayak demanded autonomy. A combination
of small guerrilla warfare and political support from Jakarta lead
to the formation of a separate province, Central Kalimantan was