The History of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta was founded in 1755 and was the capital
of Mataram kingdom when the Dutch came along. The Dutch granted
the kings by title Sultan of Yogyakarta territory. Yogyakarta was
also the scene of Indonesia's most successful rebellions against
the Dutch - firstly with Prince Diponegoro who waged a holy war
against colonial rule from 1825 to 1830, and also serving as the
capital of the newly independent republic after World War II when
the Dutch reoccupied Batavia (Jakarta).
People have lived in Central Java and Yogyakarta
area since immemorial time as over the centuries they have been
attracted by the rich soil caused by the numerous volcanic eruptions.
The earliest recorded history dares from the 9th century and was
dominated by Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms that gave rise to the magnificent
temples such as Prambanan, Ratu Boko, Kalasan, Sambisari and Borobudur
found in this area. Yogyakarta itself dates back to the 18th century.
In the early 18th century, Pakubuwono II ruled the Muslim Mataram
Kingdom of the time. After he passed away, there was a conflict
between his son and his brother, which was encouraged by the Dutch
who were trying to colonize the region on a 'divide and rule' basis.
The Kingdom was divided into two regions namely
Surakarta Hadiningrat kingdom under Sunan Pakubuwono III rule, and
Nyayogyakarta Hadiningrat kingdom under Sultan Hamengku Buwono I
rule. He was the founder of the present line of Sultans who still
live in the Kraton and play important role in Javanese culture.
The second kingdom was later called Yogyakarta, now better known
After the independence of the Republic of Indonesia
was proclaimed, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX and Sri Paku Alam VIII
launched a statement that the Kasultanan and Kadipaten (the two
royal regions), belonged to Republic of Indonesia as a part of the
whole area of Indonesia Republic. Since then, it has been known
as Yogyakarta Special Region and was given a provincial status in
1950 in recognition of its important role in it fighting for the